What’s Important To Know About The World-Wide Climates And Seasons

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Climate is a condition of the atmosphere in specific areas on earth at any given time. There are general patterns normal to an area as well as occasional extremes like drought, rainy periods, and hurricanes. Two of the more important factors that determine a regions climate are:

  • Precipitation
  • Air Temperature

The sun’s rays hit the equator at more direct angles than the rest of the world and thus give more warmth and direct lighting to plants. Our world-wide climate is affected by the location of hot and cold air-mass regions as well as by the trade winds and westerlies that carry it.

Trade winds South of the equator blow from the Southwest and North of the equator blow from the Northeast. These trade winds meet near the equator, causing air to rise and form clouds and rain. This of course is the reason for tropical wet conditions closer to the equator.

Whats Important To Know About The World Wide Climates And Seasons

Westerly winds direct weather patterns of rain from West to East across middle latitudes. You end up with tropical deserts as well because of wind patterns. The tropical deserts such as Sahara (Africa) and Sonoran (Mexico) are results of intense heat evaporating moisture before it develops into rain.


All of the wind patterns, which lead to rain patterns as well, are also affected by the Earth’s rotation about its axis. Because of this continual rotation the sun is hitting the earth at different angles and various intensities all year long (This creates Seasons). Some areas get more extreme weather fluctuations than others because the sun is coming in at different angles.


Koppen Climate System

The Koppen Climate Classification System is very detailed and the most accurate on a world-wide basis. It has 5 major climate types and several sub-categories of those.

1- Moist Tropical Climates – These are known for their high temperatures year round as well as large amount of year round rainfall.

2- Dry Climates – These are climates that are characterized by little rainfall and a large daily temperature range. Within this there are (1) Semiarid and (2) Desert or Arid.

3- Humid Middle Latitude Climates – In these climates land and water relationship differences play a big role. These climates have warm & dry summers, and cool & wet winters.

4- Continental Climates – These climates are found in the interior regions of large land masses. In these total precipitation is not very high and seasonal temperatures vary widely.

5- Cold Climates – These climates are cold with areas where permanent ice and tundra are always present. These climates usually only have about 4 months of above freezing temperatures in the year.